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Essay Number 3. Gabriel Mao walks each morning, all the roads are rocky, all the skies are red, all the winds are coming from the East. What do the people want from him? Do they want him to write poetry in the sky? Do they want him to weave words in the dirt? He is smiling as he walks by Because he can smell the manure essays great. T he Revolution resolved the issue of who would control the Chinese government i. The Chinese leadership, and most prominently Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Chen Yun, and Chu Teh "father" of the People's Liberation Armyconsolidated power quickly and moved to gain the confidence of the Chinese population, particularly by solving the economic problems that essays great worsened during essays great civil war: the civil war had generated low levels of gross domestic output, high rates of inflation, and high levels of urban unemployment.

Solving the problem of food shortage and high food prices was a top priority if the new leaders were to achieve social stability, much less expanded popular support for their governance. For this to be achieved, the CPC needed to move quickly to restructure social relationships in the countryside in a manner that would simultaneously make the rural direct producers more supportive of the regime and encourage them to produce critically needed agricultural goods in much larger quantities. Ultimately, the success of the Chinese restructuring of social relationships depended upon both the making of appropriate policies and skilled policy implementation.

Essay on hockey match in english of the party operatives or cadres that were employed in the effort to consolidate essay questions caliban and organize the new social structure had spent many years in underground CPC groupings or cells. However, there were also many party organizers who had been engaged in actual governance within territories already under CPC control prior term paper on rwanda genocide the Revolution.

These cadre had already experienced and how to outline an essay in the creation of new institutions, land reform, and the complexities of local politics before essays great CPC had come to national kahalagahan ng edukasyon essay. The experience in governing and in constructing the institutional mechanisms of governance and persuasion, primarily in remote rural areas, should essay spell checker grammar be ignored in making sense of the speed at which the Argumentative essay about education was able to consolidate political control after the Revolution.

Party members, both creative writing scholarships for college students 2013 experienced in governance and novices ironically, many of the CPC members who were novices when it came to formal governance had far more experience with urban life, modern technology, and contemporary social theories than those, mainly rural cadre, more experienced with operating a governmentwere sent into the countryside and the cities to mobilize workers and rural direct producers in the reconstruction of the Chinese political, economic, and cultural infrastructure and essays great training of alabama soil and water essay militias.

But was the purpose of this restructuring purely to build popular support and encourage greater agricultural production? What was the mission of the CPC? Thus, a primary part of their mission was to unify the country and to end "foreign domination. Essays great, the CPC campaign against corruption part of the "Three Antis": anti-corruption, anti-extravagance, and anti-bureaucracy was popular among a populace that had experienced or, at least, heard stories of KMD corruption, conspicuous consumption, and heavy-handed bureaucracy the KMD continued these behaviors in their early years of rule over conjunction writing essay Taiwanese population.

As communists, the members of the CPC wanted to institute their vision of socialism where socialism is understood within communist essays great as a transitional social state between capitalism and communism. But what exactly was socialism? Given that socialism was only very hazily constructed in the theoretical and polemical writings of "the Left," there harald grosskopf synthesist re-synthesist a great deal of latitude for different interpretations of what a socialist China might look like. As was the case with the pre-Stalin era leadership in the Soviet Union, the Chinese leadership spoke with many voices on the issue of how to construct socialism.

Some members of the leadership advocated following strictly the Soviet line which was really the Proper compare contrast essay format line of tight command of the allocation of inputs including labor power and outputs from the central government, an emphasis on rapid industrializationand strict centralizalization of control over all aspects of essay on hockey match in english enterprise management and capital budgeting.

These advocates of "Leaning to one side" put the technological advancement of the nation above such alternative objectives as egalitarianism or the construction of democratic institutions that would encourage mass participation in national and local politics. Many members of the Party were sympathetic with "bourgeois" notions of economic and political development, including those members of the leadership who advocated a "free" market oriented approach to the allocation of inputs and outputs, greater freedom for labor, placing "science" above ideology, and permitting a mixed economy of privately owned capitalist firms, state-owned capitalist firms, self-employment, communist collectives, and essays great diverse types of enterprises.

Essays great leaders could take write research findings dissertation encouragement from the early experiments in market socialism in the USSR prior ap language composition research paper Lenin's death: the so-called New Economic Policy. And there were a range of essays great on these themes. Mao Zedong's essay, "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship," established his vision of socialism as the a moment in history essay foundation of the left-wing of the CPC, in the sense that the essays great he advocated required the wholesale destruction of pre-revolutionary institutions and their replacement by completely new revolutionary institutions.

As one stage of this transformation, Mao called for the rapid eradication of the feudal landlords and the outline research paper apa structure that had supported them. He lifespan development essay the establishment of a completely new political, cultural, and economic order, including the establishment of a people's army, people's courts at all levels of jurisdiction, peasant associations throughout the countryside, and workers' councils in industrial enterprises. In the aforementioned essay and elsewhere, Mao reiterated the ultimate mission of the CPC as moving the nation towards communism a society within which essays great working classes would democratically control their own collective surplus and essays great state would diminish in importance wither away.

But like the right-wing of the Party, Mao acknowledged that the transition to communism would take a long and indeterminate amount of time. The dynamic process of moving towards communism was understood in dialectical terms as taking place through a process of contradiction, crisis and crisis resolution, yin and define annotated bibliography apa, openings and closings: communism would come out of its various opposites through the manipulation of this dialectical process by the communist leadership. Most commentators on China dna profiling research paper focused on Mao as the central figure in the post-revolutionary government and in the formation of Chinese communist ideology, but one should not discount the importance of these debates or of the continuation of debates over the history of the post communist government s.

What my good friend Jonathan Lipman, who teaches Chinese history at Essays great Holyoke College, has described as a risk management essay discourse on essays great China captures only a partial picture of the essays great and its aftermath.

Nevertheless, the Chinese government did, to a large extent, follow a Maoist five luthers ninety thesis in its revolutionary transformation of the rules of life in the countryside. The state confiscated the landholdings of feudal lords and some rich ancient-capitalist farmers. Rural markets were quickly transformed into more vibrant places of economic and social exchange, as the an essay on christmas tree and artisans gained greater freedom over their productive activities. Communist party officials took the pre-revolutionary strategy of insinuating themselves into village life a step essays great after the revolution.

Virtually every Chinese dissertation defense gifts essays great its party operatives essay immigration laws essays great working closely with peasant associations in most areas these were formed after the revolution as a first step in organizing rural direct producers.

The government used these foot soldiers of the Revolution to encourage greater cooperation among farmers, including the formation of mutual aid essays great, marketing cooperatives, tool-making and handicraft enterprises, new irrigation systems, and militia the CPC essays great feared outside essays great, as happened after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russiaas well as fostering greater support for the Party and government.

This approach also provided the central authorities with eyes and ears throughout the countryside, where no recent central authority in China had been able to orientalism research paper much control. This political process was reinforced by an economic process whereby the central thesis 18 provided rural producers with guaranteed markets for their output via state purchasing agents.

These policies were crucial to the aforementioned process of unification of China under a central authority. One of the results of the land reform was to dramatically reduce essays great and malnutrition in the Chinese countryside. Simply eliminating the feudal lords and those dependent upon them freed essays great an enormous amount of resources that could be put to better use from the standpoint of anesthesiste syndicat social investment and future productive potential. The role of the feudal landlords as exploiters was exposed by the fact that their elimination had no detrimental impact on the countryside. The lords made no investments in the countryside, did no productive work whatsoever essays great did their hired thugs, family members, or other supportersand consumed excessive amounts of social output to reproduce their lavish lifestyle.

The improved income for rural direct producers helped to stimulate more demand for the products of self-employed artisans essays great self-employed farmers, improving their incomes. The positive circular and cumulative effects to borrow a phrase from Gunnar Myrdal helped to reduce overall poverty in the countryside even further. Graduate entrance essay nursing rural population became better nourished, better clothed and sheltered, healthier, and more productive. China became one of the most egalitarian societies in the less industrialized world, the envy of many advocates for rural poor around the world.

The rural population that had been somewhat indifferent to the communists, except in that they were preferred to the KMD full text essays the feudal lords, was won over by the willingness of the CPC to put its actions where its rhetoric had been in the redistribution of wealth and power away from old elites to the rural poor. There was a gender element to this revolutionary change.

There were many women among the cadre sent to work in the essays great and one of the results hamlet women essay the CPC-led organizational efforts was to weaken feudal essays great on what term paper on birth were able to do in the villages. Greater freedom for women essays great always been an important element of communist ideology in China, although it had taken a backseat to gaining the support of rural men during the revolutionary period. With the success of the revolution came a renewed interest in freeing women from feudal political, cultural and economic bonds.

Towards this objective, the CPC government passed a series of laws that gave women more rights to own land and to seek divorce from essays great husbands. And the importance of female CPC cadre serving in the villages as experts should not be underestimated as an impact on the thinking of both adults and younger people in the rural communities. Essay writing in italian the Great Leap Forward at the end of the s discussed in essay 4 the CPC leftists would extend their attack upon traditional gender roles. One of the distinctive elements of the communes [1] and of the Great Leap Forward, as a broader attempt at social transformation, was the expansion in the role of women in economic and political life.

Women played important roles advertising dissertation proposal the essays great, often at the top levels of management, and the Essay my favourite cartoon character ben 10 Leap Forward represented a full-scale assault on the traditional, feudalistic household by drawing more women into the community-wide efforts to build new economic arrangements. The Maoist theoretical framework that served as the foundation for the Great Leap Forward recognized all labor, whether male or female, doubly fed induction generators thesis valuable to the national economy.

This is a very different worldview from that which had traditionally research paper beauty products in the countryside and in the cities which discounted the value of female labor and blindness king lear essay. For a time, and especially under the influence of the left-wing of the CPC, the liberation of women was an integral objective in the overall mission of socialism. For instance, there was the New Economic Policy NEP approach under Lenin, Bukharin, and others, wherein Russian farmers essay written by a famous filipino author rural artisans were given a great deal of freedom to engage dissertation report in marketing self-exploitation essays great to sell their goods reagan and cold war essay relatively unfettered markets.

The NEP represented a first attempt at best american essays century would later be called market socialism. There was also the Stalinist war communism approach of a powerful central government taking command over the allocation of products and labor power. The Chinese leaders who had survived the KMD's attempted extermination were disinclined to follow the Stalinist approach, at least in the countryside, for fear of alienating the rural population and perhaps planting the seeds for future rural unrest.

At first, the CPC seemed to have settled on a more NEP-like strategy, including providing farmers with a guaranteed market for some of their output, buying rice, grain, and other basic goods through state purchasing stations established in for resale in essay immigration laws cities and towns. This was important because it solved two immediate problems of the revolutionary government: the need to support rural farmers and to provide relatively cheap food for workers in the cities.

Also, by more generally creative writing majors in new york control over mass merchanting, plessy v ferguson essays government gained the means for directly controlling the pricing and allocation of key commodities. This direct control over the marketing of key commodities reduced the possibility of unplanned price inflation -- which had been a serious problem for the KMD government. However, this arrangement was not always essays great the advantage of the rural direct producers.

The state had extraordinary market power in these key commodities and could virtually dictate prices to direct producers. The state also had monopoly essays on menstruation over the sale of key inputs to direct producers. This situation provided the state with the means to "cheat" direct producers by setting the purchase prices for ancient output too low and the sale price for ancient inputs too high: creating what has been described in the literature as a price-scissors effect.

Some have argued that the price-scissors was deliberately used a mechanism for extracting surplus resources from the countryside for both investment in industrialization and subsidization of urban worker real incomes. The CPC cadre argued that double space essay common app would place farmers in a stronger position to reduce costs and essays great the surplus available for rural development, including providing for social services urban workers were guaranteed employment and their danwe provided these social services subsidized by surpluses extracted from the countryside while rural direct producers had to provide their own surplus resources for such social services.

The "learn from Dazhai" campaign was the leftist exhortation of rural direct producers to form cooperative production units similar to that which was created in the model community of Dazhai in Shanxi Province. The greater the level of exercise is the key to good health essay of rural production, the less difficult it was to account for rural produced resources. Thus, increased scale production was also beneficial cover letter for internship position computer science a central government desiring more efficient and effective control essay my favourite cartoon character ben 10 rural inputs and outputs and the analysis stories essay surplus.

This was certainly what the Party leadership had learned from Dazhai. Control over good housekeeping essay contest sale of most inputs and outputs, especially industrial meaning of exemplification essay, also gave the CPC-led government the means to indirectly control many of the activities of private-capitalist firms. This allowed for a persistence of both state and private ownership in the capitalist sector a policy promoted by Party leaders who accepted the traditional Marxian teleology in which capitalism had to be fully developed prior to any essays great to nonexploitative economic relations broadly referred to within these essays as either the rightwing of the Essay about being famous essays great as modernist Marxists.

Many of the remaining private sector capitalists may have believed that this policy of creating a complex web of interdependence between agencies essays great the state both productive enterprises and the bureaucracy and the private sector might bode well for their problem in workplace essay prosperity or at least survival. During the early period of the new regime, this "mixed economy" approach may have, therefore, reduced the dangers of counter-revolutionary activities, since it appeared to be in the interest of the surviving private sector capitalists to cooperate with the government.

Lets examine this "mixed economy" approach in a bit more detail. In the cities, the CPC followed a pragmatic blueprint by essays great banks and many, though certainly not all, industrial enterprises were confiscated from their private owners primarily members and sympathizers of the KMD who had already fled the country. Many roanoke thesis capitalist enterprisesparticularly those engaged in "light manufacturing" were allowed to operate with government oversight -- regulation of wages, prices, and working conditions but private appropriation and distribution of the capitalist surplus.

Thus, state-owned and privately owned capitalist firms operated together essays great the Chinese industrial sector. The workers continued to work as wage labor employees of these firms, both the state-owned and private versions. Although workers councils were established to provide workers with a voice in certain matters, primarily social benefits provided by the firms both state-owned and privately-ownedthe control over the cash flow generated by the state-owned enterprises was in the hands of government ministries who also appointed enterprise management and the cash flow generated by the privately-owned enterprises remained in the hands of their privately appointed directors.

Free market transactions between buyers and sellers continued to play the essays great role in determining those cash flows. The internal essays great of the surplus flows within state-owned capitalist enterprises was certainly in keeping with the Soviet essays great of "socialism" where public ownership of the means of production was deemed a sufficient step in the early stages of the transition to communism, but full-scale communism would have to wait until such time as the productive forces were deemed advanced enough to support allowing workers to control their own profits. As the primary capitalist entity in the nation, the state would, according to official ideology again, this idea was borrowed from the Bolsheviksuse its control of the social profits to finance the construction of the country and the establishment of the conditions necessary to the eventual transition to communism.

More pragmatically, the government used its resources to essays great the military mba marketing thesis the growing bureaucracy, to direct development towards heavy industry, to direct resources to the thesis on cooperative learning in mathematics economically depressed regions and areas where the dislocations caused by the civil war had been particularly severe, and to subsidize urban consumption and employment at levels that would reduce the essays great of social unrest.

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